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Yogānandin’s Sanskrit-Kurs für ‚Beginner’ (1)

(1) Sanskrit Alphabet (phonetisches Alphabet)


(1.1) die 14 Vokale

1 अ a [the first letter of the alphabet]

2 आ ā {aa} [the second vowel of the alphabet corresponding to the a in far]

3 इ i [the third vowel of the alphabet , corresponding to i short , and pronounced as that letter in kill &c]

4 ई ī {ii} fourth letter of the alphabet , corresponding to i long , and having the sound of ee in feel.

5 उ u [the fifth letter and third short vowel of the alphabet , pronounced as the u in full]

6 ऊ ū {uu} the sixth letter of the alphabet (corresponding to u long , and having the sound of that letter in the word rule).

7 ऋ ṛ {.r} [the seventh vowel of the Sanskrit alphabet and peculiar to it (resembling the sound of ri in merrily)]

8 ॠ ṝ {.rr} [the eighth vowel of the alphabet (the corresponding long vowel to ṛ and resembling the sound of ri in marine , but after labials more like ru ; it generally only appears in some forms of nouns in ṛ , viz. in the gen. pl. of all genders , in the acc. pl. m. and f. and in nom. acc. and voc. pl. n.)]

9 ऌ ḷ [.l] [the ninth vowel of the alphabet (resembling the sound lry in revelry; it only appears in some forms of √कॢप् √kḷp).

10 ॡ ḹ {.ll} [the tenth vowel of the alphabet (the corresponding long vowel to ऌ ḷ, entirely artificial and only appearing in the works of some grammarians and lexicographers)]

11 ए e the eleventh vowel of the alphabet (corresponding to the letter e as pronounced in prey, grey)]

12 ऐ ai [the twelfth vowel of the alphabet and having the sound of ei in height]

13 ओ o [the thirteenth vowel of the alphabet (corresponding to English o)]

14 औ au [the fourteenth vowel of the alphabet (having the sound of English ou in our)]





(1.2) die 25 Konsonanten


1 (15) क ka [the first consonant of the alphabet , and the first guttural letter (corresponding in sound to k in keep or king)]

2 (16) ख kha [the second consonant of the alphabet (being the aspirate of the preceding consonant ; often in MSS. and Inscr. confounded with : ष ṣa)]

3 (17) ग ga [3rd consonant of the alphabet, the soft guttural having the sound g in give]

4 (18) घ gha [the 4th consonant of the Sanskrit alphabet (aspirate of the preceding)]

5 (19) ) ङ ṅa {"na} [the 5th consonant of the Sanskrit alphabet , nasal of the 1st class. No word in use begins with this letter] Kunstwort: ङकार ṅakāra [(ṅa)-kāra] m. der Klang des Buchstaben ‘ṅa’.

6 (20) च ca [the 20th letter of the alphabet , 1st of the 2nd (or palatal) class of consonants , having the sound of ch in church]

7 (21) छ cha [the 7th consonant (aspirate of the preceding)]

8 (22) ज ja [the 3rd palatal letter (having the sound of j in jump]

9 (23) झ jha [the 9th consonant (aspirate of the preceding)]

10 (24) ञ ña {~na} [the palatal nasal (found before palatal consonants)]

11 (25) ट ṭa {.ta}[the 1st cerebral consonant (pronounced like t in true , but properly by keeping back the tip of the tongue and slightly turning it upwards)]

12 (26) ठ ṭha {.tha}[the aspirate of the preceding consonant]

13 (27) ड ḍa {.da} [the 3rd cerebral consonant (pronounced like d in drum by slightly turning the tip of the tongue upwards ; and often in Bengal like a hard r)]

14 (28) ढ ḍha {.dha}[the aspirate of the preceding letter]

15(29) ण ṇa {.na} [the cerebral nasal (taittirīya-prātiśākhya xxi , 14)]

16 (30) त ta [the 1st dental consonant]

17 (31) थ tha [aspirate of the preceding letter]

18 (32) द da [he 3rd and soft letter of the 4th or dental class]

19 (33) ध dha [aspirate of the preceding letter]

20 (34) न na [the dental nasal (found at the beginning of words and before or after dental consonants as well as between
vowels ; subject to conversion into ण ṇa, Pāṇini 8-4 , 1-39)]

21 (35) प pa [the first labial consonant]

22 (36) फ pha [aspirate of pa]

23 (37) ब ba [the third letter of the labial class (often confounded with va)]

24 (38) भ bha [aspirate of ba]

25 (39) म ma [the labial nasal]


{…} = IAST ohne diakritische Zeichen


[…] Monnier Williams (ich gehe davon aus, dass Ihr alle Englisch versteht)



Empfehlung:

(1) Die Seite in eine eigene Datei kopieren und farbig gestalten: z.B.

14 औ au [the fourteenth vowel of the alphabet (having the sound of English ou in our)]

14 [औ] rot und größer

[au] blau

[the fourteenth vowel of the alphabet (having the sound of English ou in our)] [ou our] braun

(2) Die laufende Nummerierung (ab 15 in Klammern) zusammen mit den Buchstaben einprägen (die Sanskrit-Wörterbücher - auch mein Yogavidyāśabdakośa - sind nach dieser Reihenfolge angeordnet!)


Zugabe für Fortgeschrittene


Sonderzeichen für Konsonanten:

5 (19) ) ङ ṅa {"na} 10 (24) ञ ña {~na} 11 (25) ट ṭa {.ta} 12 (26) ठ ṭha {.tha} 13 (27) ड ḍa {.da} 14 (28) ढ ḍha {.dha} 15 (29) ण ṇa {.na}

Beispiele:

कुण्डालिनीयोग kuṇḍalinīyoga [15 (29) 13 (27)] {ku.n.daliniiyoga}

अङ्ग ् aṅga_1 [aṅg] n. = Glied, Teil [5 (19)] {a"nga}

ज्ञानयोग jñānayoga [10 (21)] {j~naanayoga}

टिप्पण ṭippaṇa m. = Glosse, Kommentar [11(25 15 (29)] {.tippa.na]

युधिष्ठिर yudhiṣṭhira [yudh_2-sthira] m. myth. [Mah.] Eigennahme des Yudhiṣṭhira ‚Hart im Kampf’ , Ältester der fünf Pāṇḍavās [= ältester Bruder von Arjuna] ठ ṭha {.tha} steht stets in Verbindung mit vorhergehendem ṣa [12 (26) ठ ṭha] {Yudhi.s.thira}

अषाढ aṣāḍha [a-sāḍha] a. m. n. = unbesiegbar [14 (28)] {asaa.dha}


(Über) Schreiben und Lesen

वर्णसमाम्नाय varṇasamāmnāya [samāmnāya] m. gram. Alphabet, alphabetische Reihenfolge des Sanskrit. वर्ण varṇa [verwandt mit vṛ_1] m. gramm. Silbe, Laut, Buchstabe, Phonem समाम्नाय samāmnāya [samāmnā-ya] m. Aufzählung, Katalog

लिखित likhita [pp. likh] n. Schrift, Handschrift √ लिख् likh v. [6] pr. (likhati) = schreiben, zeichnen

पाठ pāṭha [pāṭh] m. = Lektüre, Rezitation (insbes. des Veda); Lektion √ पठ् paṭh v. [1] pr. (paṭhati) lesen, laut lesen, rezitieren

लिखितपाठक likhitapāṭhaka [pāṭhaka] a. m. n. = ‚Schreibe-Ableser’ (mittelmäßiger Rezitator, der einen geschriebenen Text
abliest) पाठक pāṭhaka [-ka] a. m. n. der rezitiert (Rezitator)

पाठकाधम pāṭhakādhama [adhama] m. soc. Rezitator der untersten Sorte अधम adhama [Superlat. adhas] a. m. n. der unterste, schlechteste || lat. infimus; fr. infime.


(Halbvokale, Sibilanten und Aspirate folgen)


Viel Spaß

Jörn योगानन्दिन् Yogānandin (Ligatur nd)




Hinweis:

Auf dieser Seite (wie überhaupt im Internet) erscheint Sanskrit (devanāgarī) n Arial Unicode MS, das u.a. keine Ligaturen kennt. Lösung: Mangal, Sanskrit 2003 Sahadeva oder Nakula auf Deinem Computer installieren und die Texte in eine eigene Datei kopieren. Kostenlose downloads:

Sanskrit 2003 [www.omkarananda-ashram.org]

Sahadeva und Nakula [bombay.indology.info]

DIESER BEITRAG WURDE BISLANG 32x ANGESCHAUT

Kommentar

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Kommentiert von Satyarupa am 26. August 2008 um 10:09am
Om Om Om
Vielen Dank für die Mühe und Infos, ich finde das Thema sehr interessant und bin sicher, das viele hier mindestens ein paar Basics lernen (können). *danke*
Om Shanti

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